Research Studies

Research studies provide informed readers with detailed analysis of a research subject in a reader-friendly format, based on litterature and field work.

New Zealand’s Recognised Seasonal Employer Scheme: An Object Lesson in Policy Making - But for Whom?

Jan. 1, 2016.Since 2007 New Zealand’s Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) Scheme has been a successful temporary migration programme allowing Pacific island residents to work for a season in New Zealand. This paper explores the interests, ideas and institutions behind its creation. The RSE represents a high point in the design of evidence-based policy which will be difficult to repeat because the building blocks are so rarely all present at the same time and place. The scheme solved the horticulture and viticulture sector’s labour shortages, brought income to the Islands and cemented New Zealand’s influence in the Pacific region.

Identifying Good Practices in LDC/LIC Services Trade Statistics Collection

Nov. 17, 2015.This paper examines good practice in services trade data collection and compilation in “better performing” LDCs/LICs and suggests a toolkit that can be followed in the remaining LDCs/LICs to improve data availability.

Successful Private Sector Mechanisms for Promoting Trade in Services: Case Study on Barbados

Nov. 17, 2015.This case study reviews private sector-related institutional mechanisms for services policy-making and negotiations in Barbados, as well as in Botswana and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It highlights the critical role of business-support organisations in collaborating with policy-makers to improve the business and investment climate.

Non-Tariff Barriers on Selected Goods Faced by Exporters from the EAC to the EU and USA

Oct. 25, 2015.Worldwide, the relatively low tariff levels are now less of a burden for exporters than non-tariff barriers. Despite their preferential market access to target markets like the EU and US, East African exporters continue to face non-tariff barriers such as license requirement and standards which hamper the full realization of their trade potential. This study analyzes the implications of such non-tariff barriers for East African Community (EAC) exporters in these markets, particularly in the the coffee and horticulture sectors, and proposes options to address them through trade negotiations and other means.

Cross Border Higher Education, International Trade, and Economic Competitiveness

Oct. 20, 2015.This study is an attempt to bridge the divide between the international education community and the international trade community, by identifying where education overlaps with the four primary delivery modes of services trade. Higher education services have emerged as an important and growing component of many nations’ economic strategies, with recent estimates placing the sectors’ market above $1 trillion. Despite cross border higher education (CBHE) featuring increasingly in many country’s trade portfolio, this does not appear to have resulted in an equivalent increase in the interaction between education and the trade policy communities. This lack of interaction results in many lost opportunities to use trade and economic development resources to advance international education efforts, and vice-versa.

The Vietnam Telecommunications Sector: Good Practices in Regulatory Reform in Relation to Competition Policy & Law Issues

Sep. 16, 2015.This case study analyses how the telecom sector has been liberalized and reformed in Vietnam. From having a wholly government-owned monopoly to opening up the market, the reform road has been and remains paved with challenges. Results today are nevertheless encouraging, with prices having significantly dropped, wider choices for consumers, and private and foreign service providers finding it easier to enter and thrive in the industry.

Exploring Regulations for Electric Energy Services through the GATS Lens: The Case of Kenya

Jul. 23, 2015.One of the reasons for the lack of participation of Least Developed Countries (LDCs), Low Income Countries (LICs) and Lower Middle Income Countries (LMICs) in services negotiations has been on the one hand, the lack of understanding by the trade officials of the specifics of services sectors and on the other hand, the trade aspects by the sectoral service officials. This case study examines the link between electric energy services regulation and policy and services trade aspects under the World Trade Organization (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) with the aim of understanding what is the trade dimension within the electric energy services.

Effective Services Institutional Mechanisms: The Case of Brazil

Jul. 17, 2015.This Brazil case study on “Effective Services Institutional Mechanisms” examines how trade in services mechanisms in a middle-level developing country have different structures and processes for trade in services negotiation. Civil Society Organizations are a key pillar of the institutional trade in services landscape today, and their inclusive participation can be an invaluable asset for the government when properly designed.

Services Policy-Making and Negotiations : Involving Civil Society for Public Interest and Consumer Welfare

Jun. 19, 2015.This case study examines how effectively different low and lower-middle income countries have leveraged civil society participation in policy-making and negotiations related to trade in services. Civil Society Organizations are a key pillar of the institutional trade in services landscape today, and their inclusive participation can be an invaluable asset for the government when properly designed. In particular, CSOs can be key partners in informing decisions and building the necessary broad-based ownership over new policies and negotiated outcomes.

WTO Services Negotiations: Identifying East African Community Countries’ Interests

Jun. 17, 2015.The paper explores the East African Community (EAC) and its interests in the WTO services negotiations. Drawing on an understanding of the region, it analyses its economic dynamics, including on services trade, in a bid to tease out what the region could prospect in the WTO's negotiations based on the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It connects the dots between EAC home-grown processes on services liberalization, and what as well as how the GATS negotiations could be used to harness benefits for EAC countries- particularly in the context of preparations for the Post- Bali Work Programme and the run up to the 10th WTO Ministerial Conference (MC10). Finally, it speaks to the important question of developing the EAC's capacity to benefit from the opportunities presented by WTO-led liberalization on trade in services.

Climate, Food, Trade: Analysis of Institutional Interplay and Information Exchange in Tanzania

Apr. 2015. | By Dr. Oswald Mashindano and Solomon Baregu

This study examines the institutional mechanisms in place in Tanzania for interaction between the government agencies responsible for climate change, agriculture and trade issues. Evidence from the study shows that the institutional and legal frameworks in Tanzania are supportive and enabling for the implementation of the District Development Plans (DDPs) at district level, including wards and village level. However, the District Councils are facing a number of challenges that undermine institutional interplay and linkages between them and the national policy-making processes. Among the main challenges identified by the author are the inadequate resources for the execution of the DDPs, the lack of district autonomy, as well as the limited involvement of Non-State Actors.

Climate, Food, Trade: Analysis of Institutional Interplay and Information Exchange in Rwanda

Apr. 2015. | By John Kalisa

This study examines the institutional mechanisms in place in Rwanda for interaction between the government agencies responsible for climate change, agriculture and trade issues. It finds that Rwanda has taken major steps in the decentralization of powers, and that the planning process is all-inclusive thereby ensuring close collaboration between central and local governments. However, gaps, shortcomings and weaknesses still exist within the institutional arrangements and across central government and district authorities. Most challenges were found at the district level, including weaknesses in coordination, involvement of grassroots citizens, inclusivity of consultation processes, and implementation follow-up.

Climate, Food, Trade: Analysis of Institutional Interplay and Information Exchange in Uganda

Apr. 2015. | By Jane Seruwagi Nalunga, Munu Martin Luther and Faith Lumonya

This study examines the institutional mechanisms in place in Uganda for interaction between the government agencies responsible for climate change, agriculture and trade issues. Focusing on the two districts of Nakaseke and Nakasongola, it sheds light on a number of challenges that have resulted in inadequate coordination in the execution of their mandates. For instance, the study finds that understaffing at the district level has led to assigning multiple roles to individual officers which has affected their performance in mainstreaming environmental issues in other areas. Among other recommendations, the author points to the need for formally establishing institutional linkages for specific cross-cutting aspects, especially towards increasing coordination of district authorities with the central government ministries and agencies.

Climate, Food, Trade: Analysis of Institutional Interplay and Information Exchange in Kenya

Apr. 2015. | By Martha Getachew Bekele and Munu Martin Luther

This study examines the institutional mechanisms in place in Kenya for interaction between the government agencies responsible for climate change, agriculture and trade issues. Among other findings, the study shows that coordination of public institutions is stronger within the counties and weaker between the counties and the national government. It also makes key recommendations to be taken up at both county and national levels in order to promote an effective interaction framework for better policy and institutional coherence.

Climat, nourriture, commerce: Analyse des interactions institutionnelles et des échanges d'inforlations au Burundi

Apr. 2015. | By Mathias Kinezero

Cette étude examine les mécanismes institutionnels en place au Burundi pour l'interaction entre les organismes gouvernementaux chargés des questions de changement climatique, d'agriculture et de commerce. En effet, la multiplication des défis provoqués par le changement climatique sur les populations agricoles, et le rôle potentiel du commerce pour atténuer l'insécurité alimentaire qui en résulte, ont rendu nécessaire pour ces institutions de communiquer plus systématiquement entre elles.

WTO Agriculture Negotiations: Securing EAC Countries’ Interests

Apr. 2015 | by Edwin Laurent.

As the WTO membership is working towards a Post-Bali Work Programme to conclude the Doha round, developing and developed countries will now have to confront the core issues that have divided them for nearly 15 years. Agriculture being at the top of the list, this study explores the general interests of East African Community (EAC) Member States in the ongoing WTO negotiations on agriculture and provides inputs for both the preparatory phase of the work programme and the ensuing negotiations. It reviews the 2008 agriculture modalities to establish whether they have been overtaken by time, especially in the light of changing US and EU agricultural policies and the circumstances and needs of EAC countries.

Climat, Nourriture, Commerce: Quels Liens Politiques? – Burundi

Oct. 2014 | by Adelin Ntungumburanye & Valérie Siniremera.

Cette étude sur le Burundi suggère fortement que les changements climatiques actuels pourraient être la plus grande menace pour la sécurité alimentaire dans la CAE, notamment à travers l'impact dévastateur des sécheresses et des fortes pluies sur ​​les produits agricoles. Le commerce du Burundi est très concentré sur quelques produits agricoles soumis à des risques internes et externes, bien que quelques initiatives cherchent à promouvoir la diversification. L'étude recommande en outre la création d'un comité technique permanent pour la planification, la supervision et le suivi des projets liés à la sécurité alimentaire au Burundi. Cette publication fait partie d'une série de cinq études menées dans les pays membres de la CAE.

The Potential of Agricultural Global Value Chains for Select Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Focus on Regulation and Trade with Asia

Dec. 2013. | By Hanjie Wang & Samuel Brown

As Global Value Chains are becoming an ever more central component of modern international trade, understanding the role of regulation in agricultural Global Value Chains is a key condition to formulating appropriate strategies to value chain upgrading. Through the cases of the cotton and tobacco sectors in Malawi and Zambia, this report analyses the role of regulation in harnessing the potential of Sub-Saharan African countries to trade value-added products with Asia. It is found that while the wide array of preferential access agreements provide enormous potential to export more highly finished products to world markets, current regulatory structures are failing to facilitate value-chain upgrading. Lack of national regulations on enforcement of contracts and comprehensiveness are identified as a key hindrance, for it discourages investors to take the first steps to upgrading.

Climate, Food, Trade: Where is the Policy Nexus? – Lessons from the East African Community

Sep. 2013.

This synthesis study compiles the findings of five national research studies in East Africa that aimed at outlining a more coherent policy framework at the interface of climate change, food security and trade...

Climate, Food, Trade: Where is the Policy Nexus? – Burundi

Mar. 2013 | by Adelin Ntungumburanye & Valérie Siniremera.

This study on Burundi strongly suggests that currently climate change might be the biggest threat to food security in the EAC due to the devastating impact droughts and heavy rains have on agricultural products. Trade in Burundi is highly concentrated on few agricultural products subject to internal and external risks. However, there have been a few initiatives towards diversification. The study further recommends creation of a permanent technical committee overseeing the monitoring and planning of food security related projects in Burundi. This publication is part of a series of five country studies conducted in the EAC member countries Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda.

Climate, Food, Trade: Where is the Policy Nexus? – Kenya

Mar. 2013 | by Gloria Otieno, Obadiah Mungai & Victor Ogalo.

For Kenya, besides the already well-documented relationship between climate change and food security, the study provides an intriguing insight into the climate change-trade nexus that had received less attention before. The study shows how carbon trading has been used to mitigate the increasing emissions of trade-induced greenhouse gases, examines how climate change has directly affected trade in various ways through its impact on various sectors of the economy, and explores the food security implications of Kenya's dependence on food imports in the context of high international food prices. While the authors make clear that most linkages between trade and climate change provide opportunities for win-win solutions, they also stress that this is conditioned to an inclusive approach to policy response. This publication is part of a series of five country studies conducted in the EAC member countries Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda.

Climate, Food, Trade: Where is the Policy Nexus? – Rwanda

Mar. 2013 | by Alphonse Mutabazi, John Bosco Kanyangoga & Tenge Ngoga.

As in other parts of the EAC, in Rwanda, climate change is altering agriculture and trade patterns since most agriculture in Rwanda is weather and rainfall reliant. But initiatives, suchs as crop intensification and assignment of suitable crop-ecological zones programmes have already helped the country improve on food security when trading these crops between zones. The study strongly suggests a shift towards more sustainable agriculture practices in Rwanda, taking into account climate-friendly production and energy generation, water management, and organic farming initiatives to address food security concerns. This publication is part of a series of five country studies conducted in the EAC member countries Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda.

Climate, Food, Trade: Where is the Policy Nexus? – Tanzania

Mar. 2013 | by Dr. G. Bamwenda, Monica A. Hangi & Dr. O. Mashindano.

This research study, undertaken by a multi-disciplinary team of three Tanzanian experts, aims to fill the current knowledge gaps on the three-dimensional relationship between trade, climate change and food security, and to provide recommendations for more holistic policy responses to the challenge of climate-related hunger, including through trade. To do so, the authors reviewed the existing literature and relevant policies in place in all three areas of food security, trade and climate change, before examining existing and missing links between them. This publication is part of a series of five country studies conducted in the EAC member countries Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. This publication is part of a series of five country studies conducted in the EAC member countries Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda.

Climate, Food, Trade: Where is the Policy Nexus? – Uganda

Mar. 2013 | by Davis Ddamulira, Jane Nalunga & Paul Isabirye.

In Uganda, the field studies undertaken in for this publication clearly indicate that there are strong intricate relationships between trade, climate change and food security. Various policies and legislations are in place in the three areas but the linkages among them have not been fully acknowledged. This is largely due to the already complex nature of any of the three areas on their own, which further complicates coherent policy-making and coordination among the relevant ministries and institutions. This publication is part of a series of five country studies conducted in the EAC member countries Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda.

Facilitating Equitable Agriculture Development in sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Kenya

Jun. 2012 | by Gloria Otieno.

This study identifies both the positive and negative elements in the relevant legal and institutional policy and regulatory framework that either facilitate or hamper positive interaction and equitable terms of trade among farmers, investors and traders in Kenya. It proposes elements of an enabling environment for positive interaction and equitable terms of trade among all relevant stakeholders in the Kenyan agriculture sector and provides recommendations towards inclusive agricultural development in Kenya.

WTO Agriculture Disciplines And Negotiations: Implications for Equitable Agriculture Development in the East African Community

Jun. 2012 | by Julian Mukiibi.

This study identifies the opportunities enshrined in WTO agreements for member countries of the East African Community, with a focus on assessing to the extent to which they facilitate equitable agricultural development. Constraints faced by stakeholders in the East African countries in exploiting such opportunities are also analised. Recommendations are provided for a variety of stakeholders with the aim to help these countries harness their well-endowed agriculture sector, towards equitable development and poverty reduction.

Facilitating Equitable Agriculture Development in sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Tanzania

Jun. 2012 | by Hussein Nassoro.

This study examines the existing relationships between the agriculture policy makers, farmers, investors and traders in Tanzania as well as their role and contribution to the policy formulation and implementation. It goes further to identify both the positive and negative elements in the relevant policy frameworks that either facilitate or hamper positive interaction and equitable terms of trade among farmers, investors and traders.

Facilitating Equitable Agriculture Development in sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Uganda

Jun. 2012 | by Ndebesa Mwambutsya Ndebesa.

This study assesses the nature and roles of all stakeholders involved in the Uganda agriculture sector, and identifies elements of an enabling institutional framework for positive interaction and equitable terms of trade among farmers, investors and traders in Uganda. It provides recommendations that will promote positive interaction between them, and ultimately lead to inclusive agricultural development and mitigate poverty in the country.

Facilitating Equitable Agriculture Development in sub-Saharan Africa: An Analysis of the EU-EAC EPA

Jun. 2012 | by Adeline Sozanski.

This study identifies opportunities under the EU-EAC EPA that could foster equitable development in the East African Community, as well as current shortcomings in negotiations that need to be addressed towards this end. Negotiators should take into account for the EPA to deliver on inclusive development.

Revenue Implications of the EC-EAC EPA: the Case of Tanzania

2009 | by Dr. Beatrice Mkenda and Monica Hangi.

The issue of revenue implications of EPAs on the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries has been widely debated, as the development implications of the reduction in government revenue that will result from the elimination of customs duties. EAC member countries' high reliance on trade taxes as a source of government revenue is a threat to the development objectives of these countries, if alternative sources are not found.

Leveraging the Agriculture Sector through Trade: Opportunities and Challenges in the EC-EAC EPA

2009 | by Julian Mukiibi.

For the EC-EAC EPA to achieve its economic development objective agriculture specific support is required to address the challenges discussed above. Policy makers should also give the agriculture sector the attention it deserves, considering its potential to contribute substantially to the development needs of the region.

The Most Favoured-Nation Provision in the EC-EAC EPA and its Implications

2009 | by Julian Mukiibi.

The issue with the MFN clause in the EPAs is that it may slow down South-South trade since the "major trading economies may not find any incentive to negotiate bilateral concessions with the EAC/ACP countries knowing that these would be taken advantage of by the EC rather than their own exporters; thus leading to slowdown in expansion/diversification of the export basket for EAC/ACP countries.

Export taxes and EPAs-Another Policy Tool under Threat from the EC?

2009 | by Julian Mukiibi.

An export tax is simply a duty applied by countries to products before export, although it can take several forms. Export taxes can be introduced at a standard rate; can fluctuate, depending on world prices, and can also induce a complete ban on exports.

Trade in Services and EPAs: The way forward for the EAC

2009 | by Victor Ogalo & Gideon Rabinowitz.

With an interim Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) on trade in goods having been agreed between the European Union (EU) and the countries of the East African Community (EAC), attention in the current phase of negotiations has turned to the remaining issues in the negotiations to conclude a comprehensive agreement that include services liberalisation.

Standards and Market Access under EPAs: Implications and Way Forward for EAC

2009 | by Victor Ogalo & Gideon Rabinowitz.

The economic costs associated with meeting high EU standards when a country has only a limited volume of production is particularly important for developing countries. This could come to constitute a barrier to trade. In this context, derogation provisions will need to be developed, which allow greater use to be made of non-originating raw materials, where this allows the unit costs of SPS-compliance in the countries concerned to be reduced to an economically viable level.